Francis I

(1494-1547) (François I)
   king of France
   King of France from 1515 to 1547, and remembered for his rivalry with the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles v, for his governmental reforms, and for his patronage of arts and letters, Francis I was born at Cognac, the son of Charles de Valois, count of Angoulême and Louise of Savoy. His mother and his elder sister, marguerite of navarre, influenced his upbringing and remained close to him during his reign. His first wife was Claude, daughter of louis xii, whom he succeeded. In 1515, Francis I achieved a spectacular victory over the swiss at Marignano, which allowed him to seize the duchy of Milan. In 1519, he was a candidate for the Imperial throne but was passed over for Charles of Habsburg. War against Charles then ensued in Italy, where Francis was defeated at Pavia and captured (1525). Imprisoned in Spain, he was ransomed and returned to France (1527). Peace was finally made and, in 1529, Francis married the emperor's sister, Eleanor. Later inconclusive wars were fought against the Habsburgs (1536-38 and 1542-44), during which periods Francis I allied himself with Protestant German princes and with the ottoman Turks. Earlier, he had gained an alliance with England (Field of Cloth of Gold, 1520). Under his sister's influence, Francis was, for a time, sympathetic to Protestantism, especially in its humanistic form, but later he abandoned his tolerance and persecuted French Protestants (see huguenots). In 1516, he concluded a concordat with the papacy in which he gained greater control of the Catholic Church in France. His military expenses caused him to undertake financial reforms, and he also began to sell judicial and financial offices, thus creating a new class of ennobled magistrates. An imposing monarch, Francis I centralized the royal government and reinforced royal absolutism. He spent much of his time, however, in liaisons and affairs, leaving the governing power to his mother or one of his favorites. The wealth of his court, derived from the economic prosperity of the kingdom, allowed him to introduce the Italian Renaissance to France and to patronize many artists, including Leonardo da vinci and Benvenuto Cellini. He employed the scholar Guillaume budé to create a royal library and to found professorships in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, thus forming the nucleus of the later collège de france.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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  • Francis — ist als eine Variante von Franciscus ein männlicher und weiblicher Vorname lateinischer Herkunft[1][2], der auch als Familienname vorkommt. Eine Kurzform des Vornamens ist Fran. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Namensträger 1.1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Francis — Francis. Asteroide nº. 2050 de la serie (1974 KA), descubierto el 28 de mayo de 1974 por Eleanor Francis Helin desde Monte Palomar. La descubridora lo nombró en honor de sus padres Fred y Kay Francis. Lista de asteroides * * * Francis, turbina *… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Francis I — • King of France; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Francis I     Francis I      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Francis — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Francis es una nombre propio originario de los idiomas francés, inglés y escocés, descendientes del nombre Latín Franciscus, hace referencia a: Francis Bacon, filósofo británico; Francis Buchanan Hamilton, zoólogo y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Francis II — may refer to:* Francis II, Duke of Brittany (1433–1488) * Francis II of France (1544–1560) * Francis II, Duke of Lorraine (1572–1632) * Francesco II d Este, Duke of Modena (1662–1694) * Francis II Rákóczi, Duke of Transylvania (1676–1735) *… …   Wikipedia

  • Francis I — may refer to:* Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414 1450, reigned 1442 1450) * Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545, reigned 1544–1545) * Francis I of France (1494 1547, reigned 1515 1547) * Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1541 1587 …   Wikipedia

  • FRANCIS (S.) — FRANCIS SAM (1923 1994) Après la «percée» abstraite de l’action painting , qui avait renouvelé l’art américain des années 1950, on voit apparaître de nombreuses tendances picturales, toutes, d’une manière ou d’une autre, influencées par l’art qui …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • FRANCIS I° — FRANCIS I°, Austrian emperor 1792–1835, last Holy Roman Emperor (as Francis II) until 1806. In 1792 Francis ordered the Judenamt (office for Jewish affairs) to enforce the numerous restrictions on Jewish settlement in vienna and raised the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Francis Ng — Chinese name 吳鎮宇 (Traditional) Chinese name 吴 …   Wikipedia

  • Francis — Francis, OK U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 332 Housing Units (2000): 155 Land area (2000): 0.585408 sq. miles (1.516199 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.585408 sq. miles (1.516199 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Francis —   [ frɑːnsɪs],    1) Emerich, Soziologe, * Gablonz an der Neiße 27. 6. 1906, ✝ München 14. 1. 1994; nach seiner Emigration 1939 58 Lehrtätigkeit in Kanada und den USA; 1958 74 Professor in München; seit 1954 auch Gastprofessuren. Neben… …   Universal-Lexikon

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